CRISPR/Cas systems in prokaryotes

Michał Burmistrz, Krzysztof Pyrc
Pol J Microbiol
2015; 64 (3):
ICID: 1169720
Article type: Review article
IC™ Value: 8.00
Abstract provided by Publisher
 
Prokaryotic organisms possess numerous strategies that enable survival in hostile conditions. Among others, these conditions include the invasion of foreign nucleic acids such as bacteriophages and plasmids. The clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated proteins (CRISPR-Cas) system provides the majority of bacteria and archaea with adaptive and hereditary immunity against this threat. This mechanism of immunity is based on short fragments of foreign DNA incorporated within the host’s genome. After transcription, these fragments guide protein complexes that target foreign nucleic acids and promote their degradation. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status of CRISPR-Cas research, including the mechanisms of action, the classification of different types and subtypes of these systems, and the development of new CRISPR-Cas-based molecular biology tools.
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